Chebotaeva N.A., Gardamshina M.I. Our Neighbours: the Forest Nenets. Traditional Medicine// Science. First Hand – 2006. – Special Issue. – P. 25-34.

Folk medicine is a part of traditional culture and exists as an area of specific knowledge connected with rational and irrational concepts. Folk medi­cine of the Forest Nenets was greatly influenced by their religious and cosmogonical concepts based on one of early forms of religion, animism, i.e. personification of live and dead nature.

The head deity of the Forest Nenets is Num, god of heav­en, who created the forest, animals and people. He watches his creations but does not interfere with earthly matters. For that he has assistants — spirits, who arc masters of the earth, rivers, lakes, wind, and fire. In recent past each person's health was considered to be connected with the attitude of those spirits to people. In the eyes of the Forest Nenets, the spirits personified two opposite forces — good and evil. Diseases, wounds and injuries were, in their view, the outcome of evil forces, the result of nature's spirits interfering in their life or of the magical impact of another person's evil will. The breaking of taboos, customs and rituals was always considered one of the main reasons that allowed the evil spirits to penetrate into a human body and meddle with his or her life. The Nenets strongly believed that not only the spirits of the Lower world could punish people with diseases, but also personal protectors, family spirits, or any supernatural creatures inhabiting the Middle and Upper worlds.

The treatment of the diseases which were caused by something visible (an injury, chilblain, burn) was usually rational. However, when having internal or mental diseases, whose cause was incomprehensible to the Forest Nenets, they turned for help to shamans, who performed the role of healers scaring off the illness-bringing spirits along with carrying out other functions.

Usually kamlanie[*] (the shaman's performance) took place in the evening, in half-darkness, next to the fireplace, by the sounds of the drum, and continued for several hours. As a rule, kamlanie was accompanied by the shaman's falling into a trance. To achieve this state, shamans often used toadstools, which they dried in the sun, cut very small, mixed with water and then swallowed. To enhance 1 he effect of toadstools, shamans chewed the dried pieces together with tobacco, washing everything down with a small amount of water. To help the diseased, shamans employed different means; the main condition was exerting their influence on the patient's psyche and establishing the patient's full trust for the healer. For that they used ritual masks (made of wood, bark, cloth, metal) and luminous effects. Rhythmic drumming, incantations, singing, and the fuddling smell of burning ledum were supposed to help to stave off from the patient the deliberate plots of the evil spirits.

As a rule, while treating people shamans used their knowledge of human physiology and anatomy, remedies of various nature and such means of healing as searing, massage, psychotherapy. The main therapeutic factor was various forms of hypnotic suggestion that shamans used in order to mobilize the patient's body's defensive mechanisms strengthening his or her faith in recovery.

Slight ailments did not require a shaman's attention; the evil spirit (disease) could be driven out of the patient's body by other means, for example, by making sacrifices in sanctuaries. When falling ill, the Nenets also asked for dyan'kata's help. Dyan Kata ("Earth's grandmother") are dolls-idols, which the Nenets women still have now: they are supposed to be the protectors of women, child-bearing and motherhood; they are worshipped and thoroughly guarded. The Forest Nenets used to believe that without dyan'kata childbirth can end in tragedy. During labor the woman held the doll on her belly, clutching it with both hands when having contractions, and asking for relief. When contractions grew intense, the woman went down on all fours, and the one who was delivering the baby took the doll and placed it over the mother's back. Such dolls were put at the head of the bed of an infirm. If dyan' kata seemed heavy, it meant death for the patient; if it seemed light, the forecast was more favorable.

A special role in curing illnesses was given to dogs. The Forest Nenets treat the dog in two ways: on the one hand, it guards humans from evil spirits and serves as a good shep­herd for reindeer; on the other hand, it is itself an offspring of the Lower world god — Nga. According to legends, dogs have their own spirit-master, who lives in the forest and against whom shamans are helpless. This spirit can inflict a disease on people that makes them lose strength, lose weight and die.

In order to recover, the Forest Nenets who did not have rein­deer sacrificed their dog, send­ing it to the Lower world as compensation. The sacrificial reindeer's or dog's nose was put against the sore spot. To get rid of scurvy, the sleigh's skid or the chum's doors were smeared with the sacrificial dog's blood. If the spirit of scurvy came in one's sleep, the person had to cry out, "Scurvy, you are killing me!", then immediately to make a cut in a dog's or a reindeer's ear and put the blood over the face to prevent the disease in the future.

The Forest Nenets have many legends connected with flora. They believe that spirits often choose as their resi­dence definite (holy) trees. They help people, especially in curing diseases. The branches of such trees were decorated with pieces of bright fabric and skulls of sacrificial animals as a token of gratitude; the trunks were bound with shawls, fabric, skins, etc. The Nenets believed that the one who dared to cut the holy tree was inviting the spirits' anger, which suggested all kinds of disaster and even death.

The source of rational means of curing diseases for the For­est Nenets was wild nature: plants, animals, and minerals. Many prescriptions have been tested by time, and methods of curing and preventing dis­eases are widely used today. Children are being treated with the same traditional rem­edies as adults, but the doses are smaller.

 

GREEN PHARMACY

Traditional healing practices made (and still do) great use of wild plants in the form of decoctions, infusions and powders. They are not only taken orally but are also used externally — as massages, lotions, rinses, baths, and powderings. The stewed plants are used for compresses. By mixing plants with fat, ointments for external use are created. The most respected tree for the Nenets is the birch. Household utensils are made of birch; birch firewood keeps houses warm. The healing power of birch sap and of the extract of its buds has been known for a long time. The Nenets drink it as tonic when having a cold. The Forest Nenets use chaga (a fungus of the polypori family that grows on birch trunks) for treating many diseases. In the old days, when there was no tea, the Nenets used chaga to make decoction and believed it to possess many healing properties. Chaga was considered to be an effective means of curing toothache, for which they dried it on fire, mixed it with tobacco and water and then put it behind the lip and kept it in the mouth until the ache subsided. Chaga was also used to suppress hunger during long trips.

Some clans of the Forest Nenets consider conifers to be holy, as a symbol of immortality and longevity. According to their legends, the trees possess some magic features. The trees include the larch, from which they used to carve cult sculptures. Its needles were used for preparing antiscurvy tincture; its cones, for treating pneumonia; and its needles and bark together, for healing festering wounds and abscesses. To treat wounds they also used its tar, for which they first warmed it up over the fire and then put it, warm and soft, against the wound; the tar was held there until it fell off from the healed wound. Sometimes they added bear fat to larch tar. Festering wounds were treated with ointment containing fir tar, for which they mixed the lat­ter with perch or pike fat in equal shares and then boiled the mixture.

To anesthetize wounds and stop bleeding, the Forest Nenets also used another remedy. They pounded tobacco in a mortar, mixed it with an equal part of ash of the burned tobacco and then added such an amount of water that the powder could stay friable. The mixture was then applied to the wound and pressed hard with the help of birch shavings.

A popular folk remedy for many diseases is ledum, or marsh tea, an evergreen bush with a strong intoxicating smell. In the old days, during epidemics, the Forest Nenets fumigated their settlements and houses with its smoke. Fresh and dry branches are still used in chums to scare off mosquitoes, midges and other insects. Newborns are bathed in its decoction. Another popular medicine is hellebore, an extremely poisonous plant. The Forest Nenets make decoction from its root and use it to purge the bowels from worms. They apply its leaves to wounds as an antiseptic and haemostatic means. To cure scab, a mixture of ledum leaves, hellebore roots and reindeer fat is used.

To prevent scurvy the Forest Nenets ate scurvy-grass, in spite of its bitter taste. In folk medicine, its juice is still considered to be a good means of "blood cleaning". They also use the usual food of reindeer — reindeer moss — which is applied to sore joints as a compress or to the back and chest when there is a cold. For compresses, the elderly Forest Nenets also pick up toadstools and stand them with vodka.

After encountering the Russians, the Forest Nenets adopted some of their methods of herbal treatment, including those using wild berries. Bilberries and bird chenies were used for curing the upset stomach; blue­berry leaves decoction, as an expectorant; cowberry and cloudberry leaves, as a diuretic. Cloudberries, a widely distributed plant of the tundra, were eaten as a tonic, diuretic and sudorific, as well as a headache remedy.

The native Northerners have always appreciated crowberries — an evergreen creeper with black sweet­ish fruit; they sometimes preferred it to other berries, probably, for its total lack of acid. The Forest Nenets use crowberries to heal stomach-ache, as a diuretic and blood cleansing means; the infusion made from its shoots heals pains in joints. 

 

"ANT BATHS" 

The Forest Nenets began to use animal remedies as their weaponry and hunting techniques became more efficient. For example, the fresh meat or the blood of recently killed animals, which are eaten raw, turned out to be an effective anti-scurvy remedy because of a high content of ascorbic acid and of other vitamins. The internal organs, fat and bile of animals also found their use as medicines.

Goose or bear fat, and cod liver oil are used to heal burns or frostbite. The fat is melted and kept in a cool place. Wild goose fat or black duck fat is considered to be of special value because it is used to heal wounds and different skin diseases such as scab or herpes. Fish oil is used to prevent frostbite: it is applied to the face when people take long rides on reindeer or in snowmobiles. To treat burns or frostbite, people use ointments, i. e. mixtures of fat with the tar of conifers. In the old times the Nenets used thin fibers of birch bark as bandaging material.

Bear fat is considered to be the best medicine for colds, and bear bile is a universal treatment for many other ail­ments. A good medicine for bleeding and purulent wounds is the powder scraped off the cooked bear bones or made of dried pike jaws. To treat earache, they put in the ear tampons made of manufactured threads soaked in polar fox fat or bear fat.

Tinctures of fresh bear bile or reindeer bile are used in massaging rheumatic joints and sore muscles. The Forest Nenets drink small doses of such tinctures when coughing, having short wind or stomach-ache, colic, heart attacks, and jaundice. To prevent various diseases, it is recommended to use one drop of pike bile a day. When eyelids have been inflamed for a long time, their edges are smeared with bear bile or bird bile, a duck feather used as a brush.

The Forest Nenets make wide use of remedies provided by reindeer; first of all, they use new growing antlers filled with blood and covered with short thick hair resembling velvet. The antlers are burned over the fire, then the rest of the hair is scraped off with a sharp knife, and the soft cartilaginous top is eaten. The Nenets suffering from ex­haustion or anemia drink kissel (kind of starchy jelly) made of antlers. Decoction is used for treating bedsores and other continuous infectious skin sores. Antlers are believed to be especially good for children and old people as a means of bone strengthening and of postponing aging.

Other parts of the reindeer carcass were also important medicines for the Forest Nenets. When having a cold, a heavy cough or diseases of liver, they drank melted marrow from reindeer legs. The reindeer brain was used for treating vertigo. To treat stomach ulcer, they used the reindeer stomach filled with reindeer moss; the reindeer was supposed to be killed after being put out to morning pasture on moss. The stomach was put on an iron sheet under the red-hot furnace. As its surface was fried, the b